This research paper was commissioned by GFN-SSR as paet of a help-desk support to inform HMG to report on its engagement in the context of Nepal. The query asked for illustrative examples and lessons of integration;in particular, examples of integration into armies, integration into non-military forces.
Almost eight years after the end of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country is still struggling with social and economic problems. Of the prewar population of about 4.6 million only 3.8 remained (HDR 2002, p.36). Many Bosnians are still refugees or internally displaced, and about 258,000 inhabitants died in the four years of violent conflict between the three belligerent armies (Keane 2002, p.69).
The highly sensitive issue of “monitoring, integration and rehabilitation” of the Maoist combatants as called for in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and the Interim Constitution of Nepal, has now become central to concluding the peace process and finalizing the new constitution of Nepal.
With its transitional administration in East Timor, the UN is exercising sovereign authority within a fledgling nation for the first time in its history. This development is consistent with the trend towards increasing social and territorial control in interventions to remedy the breakdown of failed states, combat warring gactions and topple abusive warlords.
In the late 1980s it came apparent that post-conflict peace-building had entered a stage of complexity that needed new comprehensive tools if success were to be achieved. One of the new tools emerging on the scene were programmes to demobilise former warring factions – guerrilla groups, rebel movements or government forces – so that sustainable peace could be achieved.
The trajectory of war and peacemaking in Burundi since the early 1990s presents an unusual story. The most celebrated peace agreement was a detailed and politically comprehensive multi-party agreement reached in 2000—the Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement (Arusha Agreement). 9 Less celebrated and politically comprehensive were a series of bilateral ceasefire agreements reached in 2002–2006, the most notable being the Pretoria Protocol.
DDR can be both: either the classical post-conflict disarmament demobilization of state armies and rebel groups, or the downsizing of an oversized military a long time after the end of a conflict. Parts of DDR measures can be also included in Security Sector Reform (SSR).